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Analysing student-student interaction from cooperative learning and systemic functional perspectives. This paper explains Systemic Functional Linguistics and cooperative learning, and uses these two perspectives on human interaction to analyse a transcript of the interaction of three primary school students working on a group task.

Mutual aid: A factor of evolution This is a review of the book, originally published in 1902, by the Russian author Petr Kropotkin. The book’s main thesis is that Darwin’s theory of evolution has been misunderstood by naturalists and misapplied by social scientists to support the view that competition is the main form of interaction in nature and in human society. Kropotkin argues that, instead, cooperation is the key, not just to survival but also to evolution.

Four or More Eyes Are Better than Two: Using Cooperative Learning to Maximize the Success of Group Activities in Reading This paper presents options for implementing CL in reading instruction.

Enriching the curriculum through service learning This is a review of a 1995 ASCD book which explains how service projects done by students can be linked to various areas of the school curriculum. As such service projects are usually done in groups, service learning provides an excellent means of teaching cooperation with others not just as a way of learning but as a way of living.

Integrating language functions and collaborative skills in the second language classroom This article discusses the links between the teaching of language functions and the teaching of collaborative skills in order to facilitate group interaction.

Annotated Bibliography of Works on CL and Second Language Instruction This is an ongoing project. Please send me any references that are not included along with an abstract. Thank you.

CL Workshop This is a PowerPoint presentation of about 90 slides that I use as a beginning part of workshops and courses I do on CL. In the workshops I do, it takes approximately six hours to get through the entire presentation. The file is more than 500 KB. If you want to edit the slideshow, you need to choose Save, instead of Open.

Cooperative Learning in the Thinking Classroom: Research and Theoretical Perspectives
Paper presented by Christine Lee, Maureen Ng, and me at the International Thinking Conference, June, 1997, Singapore.

Foundations of Cooperative Learning
Revised version of Foundations of Cooperative Learning. 1990, January. Paper presented at the Hawaii Educational Research Association conference, Honolulu. This paper looks at some of the psychological theories that form a basis for cooperative learning.

Adding Lots of Honey to Small Group Activities
Sweet Smell Of Learning: Adding Lots Of Honey To Small Group Activities, 1993, Guidelines, 15(1), 29-36. Explains the concept of positive interdependence, giving examples of eight ways to encourage students to feel that they and their groupmates sink or swim together.

Internet Resources on Cooperative Learning
This is a list, compiled with Gan Siowck Lee, of a discussion list and websites related to cooperative learning. If you know of others that you recommend, please let me know about them, but please only inform me of ones that you think are useful. Thank you.

Quotes on Cooperative Learning and Education Generally
The books of David and Roger Johnson have lots of good quotes in them. I've taken lots from them and added many others. If you know more, please send them along.

The Changing Nature Of Workplace Literacy As A Rationale For The Use Of Groups In ESP
1994, ESP Malaysia, 2(2), 106-117. ESP stands for English for Specific Purposes.

Baloche, L. A. (1998). The collaborative classroom: Empowering learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Pp. 260. ISBN: 0-13-360090-4.

Jacobs, G. M., & Hall, S. (in press). "Implementing cooperative learning." In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cooperative learning in lower primary school. This is an article I co-authored with some teachers and a teacher educator in Singapore. The title of the article is “Introducing Cooperative Learning to P1 and P2 Students.” P1 and P2 mean the first two grades of primary school, roughly equivalent to first and second grade in the U.S.

Task-based language teaching. This article reports a study of one attempt to teach task-based language teaching to English teachers in the Philippines. Task-based teaching has much in common with cooperative learning.

The Appropriacy of Group Activities: Views from Some Southeast Asian Second Language Educators.

Review of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice of an Emerging Paradigm, a 1996 book by Timothy Koschmann.

Students’ views on peer feedback. This is a study which investigated the view of tertiary students in Hong Kong and Taiwan on the value of receiving peer feedback on their writing.

The Philippines. This is an introductory article on cooperative learning written for a journal the caters to language teachers in the Philippines.

Student-initiated Out-of-Class Academic Collaboration. Crookall, D., Lopez-Nerney, S., Teng, S. M. J., Wu, S. M., Toh, L. S. J. E., Norhayati, M. I., Meyer, L., & Jacobs, G. M. (2000). Student-initiated out-of-class academic collaboration at a Singapore university. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 9(1), 64-82.
Abstract: Students can study together not only in the classroom but outside the classroom as well. This article reports an investigation of the behavior of university students in Singapore in regards to the extent and manner in which of their own initiative they study together outside of class and the students’ perceptions of out-of-class academic collaboration (OCAC). Participants in the descriptive study were 457 undergraduates at the National University of Singapore from four different faculties at the university. Data were collected via a questionnaire that asked about such areas as places in which students did OCAC, frequency of OCAC, purposes of OCAC, size of OCAC groups, choice of OCAC groupmates, perceived advantages and disadvantages of OCAC, and conditions for promoting successful OCAC. Suggestions are made for future research, and for increasing and enhancing the use of OCAC.

Out-of-Class Academic Collaboration among polytechnic students in Singapore. Because of copyright laws, I can’t post this article, but here is the reference and the abstract and if you’d like a soft copy, write me and I’ll send you one.

Crookall, D., Jacobs, G. M., Hussein, A., & Fazilah, M. I. (2001). An exploratory study of teacher-required out-of-class academic collaboration among students at a polytechnic in Singapore. Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 38, 279-291.

Academic collaboration among students takes place not only inside classrooms but outside of class as well. This study investigated such out-of-class academic collaboration among students at a polytechnic in Singapore as they worked on assignments on which their lecturers had required them to collaborate. Data were collected via a questionnaire completed by 232 students, interviews were conducted with ten lecturers, observations were done of eight student groups as they collaborated on teacher-required work outside of class, and then interviews were conducted with these eight groups. Suggestions are made for enhancing this collaboration.


George M Jacobs
Tel: 65-9389-8360 (mobile)